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Language assistants, room 212 in Foster Place, ext. ... Class exercises will be taken from this book, and required grammar exercices will be ... in addition to the Bescherelle: La Conjugaison pour tous (Paris: Hatier,1997) and ...... courses (ES, CSLL) the only function of the French Department meeting is to return a mark to ...

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Senior Freshman Handbook

2009 - 2010

Two-Subject Moderatorship

This Handbook should be read in conjunction with relevant entries in the University Calendar. In case of any conflict between the Handbook and the Calendar, the provisions of the Calendar shall apply. Copies of the University Calendar can be purchased or consulted either in the Library or on the web at:

Lecturing staff

Individual telephones can be accessed from outside College by pre-fixing (01) 896; email addresses are followed by .

Dr Sarah Alyn Stacey, room 4105, tel. 2686, email
Dr Edward Arnold, room 4106, tel. 1836, email
Ms Annick Ferré, room 4104, tel. 1977, email
Professor Johnnie Gratton, room 4090, tel. 2278, email (on leave Michaelmas Term 2009)
Dr Rachel Hoare, room 4103, tel. 1842, email
Dr Claire Laudet, room 4108, tel. 2313, email
Mr Tommy Murtagh, room 4114, tel. 1511, email
Mr David Parris, room 4112, tel. 1979, email
Dr Paule Salerno-O'Shea, room 4113, tel. 1472, email >(on leave Michaelmas Term 2009)
Professor David Scott (Head of Department), room 3135, tel. 1374, email

Lectrices, room 4077, ext. 1248 Florence Impens
Audrey Robitaillie
Léa Lefranc
Séléna Benattou
Language assistants, room 212 in Foster Place, ext. 3052
Alexandra Tauvry
Marjorie Deleuze
Judith Villez
Executive Officers

Ms Mary Kelly and Ms Sinéad Doran, room 4111, tel. 1553, email
Ms Lorraine Kerr and Ms Tracy Corbett, room 4089, tel. 1333 (mornings only), email

Term Dates

Michaelmas Term: Monday 28 September 2009 - Friday 18 December 2009
Hilary Term: Monday 18 January 2010 - Friday 5 April 2010
Trinity Term: Monday 12 April 2010 - Friday 28 June 2010


Overall year coordinator: Dr Sarah Alyn Stacey
Language: Ms Annick Ferré
Literature: Prof. David Scott
Ideas: Dr Sarah Alyn Stacey
Linguistics: Dr Rachel Hoare
Schol: Prof. Johnnie Gratton

Bonne rentrée et bon courage!


Language Programme

Written Language:

Language 1: Grammar

Students attend a grammar lecture every week which builds on the foundation provided in the JF year; the course aims both to develop a number of familiar grammatical points and to introduce more sophisticated grammatical structures. The core text book for this course is C. Abbadie et al., L’Expression française écrite et orale (Grenoble: PUG 2002) available in International Books. Class exercises will be taken from this book, and required grammar exercices will be handed out after the grammar lecture. Students should also have their Grammaire Ollivier as a reference text, in addition to the Bescherelle: La Conjugaison pour tous (Paris: Hatier,1997) and Humbertsone’s Mot à mot (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1996).

Students are expected to acquire and familiarise themselves with a good monolingual dictionary. Le Petit Robert is recommended; if that is ruled out on grounds of expense, Le Micro Robert is an acceptable substitute for most purposes.

Language 2: Composition and Written Expression

Students also attend a weekly language class with a member of the lecturing staff or a graduate assistant. The dossier for this class is available from the Departmental Office (Room 4089). This course aims to develop reading and writing skills, and to introduce students to the exercises of translation, résumé and essay writing among others.

Work submitted for this class counts for 25% of the overall language mark for the year. This is calculated on the basis of marks awarded for 10 set assignments. One of these will be an aggregrate mark for all grammar exercises submitted throughout the year. This will be added to the best seven marks of the remaining nine assignments.

Oral Language

Students attend a weekly class with the native lecteurs / lectrices. Through discussion concerning aspects of contemporary France, this class aims to develop aural comprehension and oral expression.

NB: Since this is your only contact hour with native speakers, and your only chance to speak French in a small-group environment, it is vital that you attend on a weekly basis and participate regularly.

Self-Access Grammar Programme

In addition, a number of copies of the brochures detailing a programme of self-access activities used in previous SF years are still available in 4089. Students, particularly those whose marks were weak in the JF Language I paper, are strongly advised to use these brochures for additional personal study. Any queries should be addressed to Ms Annick Ferré.



Students also follow two of the following three additional courses:

Ideas into Politics
The French Language – Evolution and Structure

All of these courses run throughout the year, with weekly lectures and weekly seminars. For each course that the student takes, an essay of 2,000-2,500 words must be submitted. Students therefore write two essays during the year. Rather than submitting them both together, the deadlines are spread out (see below). Students can decide which Option essay they will submit first. Students cannot submit both essays at the same time. Essay titles are appended.

Deadlines: MT essays: by noon on Monday 18 January 2010

HT essays: by noon on Friday 26 March 2010

One piece of assessed work must be submitted in French. Students may choose which of the two pieces they wish to write in French.
In marking these essays, 70% of the mark is given to content, and 30% to the French language.
Such work must be word-processed. Students must include an electronic word count with their essays. Essays of excess length will be returned and resubmission required.
For essay writing guidelines, please refer to the comprehensive document circulated in JF. This document also contains guidelines on referencing conventions and the presentation of material.


(Dr Alyn Stacey, Dr Arnold, Mr Murtagh)

The purpose of this course is twofold. Firstly, it aims to acquaint students with the ideological traditions of modern France, stretching back to the Renaissance and forward to the post-war period. Secondly, it aims to encourage close reading of texts, and to develop skills in the analysis of arguments, and of the suppositions and values embedded in them. This function is served primarily by the seminars. With the exception of Pascal’s Pensées and Voltaire’s Candide, all texts required for these will be available in the form of an Anthology available from the Department Secretary in Room 4089.

The Ideas section of the course-work annual examination comprises both essays and commentaries. For the commentaries, students will be asked to place the extract in its historical context; to analyse its contents; and to indicate its interest in relation to the themes of the course. Whether a particular subject-area is examined by essay or commentary may vary.

Lecture schedule

Michaelmas Term

Week 1 Fashioning Politics in 16th-Century Society: Montaigne’s De la coustume et de ne changer aisément une loy receüe (SAS)
Week 2 A Sceptic’s Guide to International Politics: Montaigne’s
Des Cannibales (SAS)
Week 3 Montaigne, Political Idealist? (SAS)
Week 4 Bank Holiday 27th October
Week 5 Pascal’s Pensées: Man and Society in the 17th Century (SAS)
Week 6 Pascal’s Pensées: Man and Society in the 17th Century (SAS)
Week 7 Study Week
Week 8 Pascal’s Pensées: Man and Society in the 17th Century (SAS)
Week 9 Voltaire’s Candide, The Enlightenment, and the Best of all Possible
Worlds (SAS)
Week 10 Voltaire’s Candide, The Enlightenment, and the Best of all Possible
Worlds (SAS)
Week 11 Voltaire’s Garden (or his answer to the Meaning of Life) (SAS)
Week 12 The French Revolution (EA)

Hilary Term

Week 1 Napoleonic Reforms (EA)
Week 2 The Restoration (EA)
Week 3 The Revolutionary Factor in French Political Life (EA)
Week 4 Napoleon III and the Second Empire (1848-70) (EA)
Week 5 Intellectuals against the Republic (1871-1914) (EA)
Week 6 ‘Les Guerres franco-françaises’ and the Dreyfus affair (EA)
Week 7 Study Week
Week 8 ‘Neither Right nor Left’: Politics in the Interwar Years (1918-1944) (EA)
Week 9 Resistance and Collaboration (1940-44) (EA)
Week 10 Post-war Literature and Politics (TM)
Week 11 Post-war Literature and Politics (TM)
Week 12 Post-war Literature and Politics (TM)

Select Bibliography

The Age of Montaigne
Departmental edition provided of two essays: De la coustume et de ne changer aisément une loy receüe and Des Cannibales.
Janine Garrison, A History of Sixteenth-Century France, 1483-1598, London: Macmillan, 1995
R. J. Knecht, The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France, 1483-1610, London: Fontana, 1996

Pascal and the Seventeenth Century
Edition: Pascal, Pensées, ed. Dominique Descotes, Paris: Garnier Flammarion, 1976; any other edition may be used providing it is based on Léon Brunschvicg’s text
John Cruickshank, Pascal: Pensées, London: Grant and Cutler, 1988
Pascal: Thématique des Pensées, ed. L. M. Heller and I.M. Richmond, Paris, Vrin, 1988
Kearns, Edward J., Ideas in Seventeenth-Century France: the Most Important Thinkers and the Climate of Ideas in which They Worked, Manchester: Manchester UP, 1979
Janet Morgan, ‘Pascal’s “Three Orders”’, Modern Language Review, 73 (1978), 755-766
Michael Moriarty, Taste and Ideology in Seventeenth-Century France, Cambridge: CUP, 1988

Voltaire and the Enlightenment
Edition: Voltaire, Candide ou l’Optimisme, ed. Frédéric Deloffre, Paris: Folio, 2003
Robert Darnton, The Business of Enlightenment. A Publishing History of the ‘Encyclopédie’, 1775-1800, Cambridge, Mass.; Harvard UP, 1979.
Norman Hampson, The Enlightenment, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968
John Lough, The ‘Encyclopédie’ , London: Longman, 1971
Dorinda Outram, The Enlightenment, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1995
Ira Owen Wade, The Intellectual Origins of the French Enlightenment, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1971

The Revolution
Alfred Cobban, Aspects of the French Revolution, London: Paladin, 1973
D.M.G. Sutherland, France 1789-1815. Revolution and Counterrevolution, London: Fontana/Collins, 1985
Roger Magraw, France 1815-1914. The Bourgeois Century, London: Fontana, 1983
Roger Price, A Social History of Nineteenth-Century France, London: Hutchinson, 1987

Napoleon III and the Second Empire
Maurice Agulhon, 1848 ou l’apprentissage de la république, 1848-1852, Paris: Seuil, 1973
François Caron, La France des Patriotes, de 1851 à 1918, Paris: Fayard, 1985
Alain Plessis, De la fête impériale au mur des fédérés, 1852-1871, Paris: Seuil, 1979

The Third Republic
Robert D. Anderson, France 1870-1914. Politics and Society, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977

On Anti-Semitism and the Dreyfus Affair
* Pascal Ory, Jean-François Sirinelli, Les Intellectuels en France, de l’Affaire Dreyfus à nos jours, Paris: Armand Colin, 1986
Michel Winock (ed), L’Affaire Dreyfus, Paris: Seuil, 1998

Fascism, Nationalism and Extreme Right in France
Edward J. Arnold (ed.), The Development of the Radical Right in France. From Boulanger to Le Pen, London: Macmillan, 1999
Ariane Chebel d’Appollonia, L’Extrême-droite en France. De Maurras à Le Pen, Brussels: Ed. Complexe 1996 (New edition, coll. ‘Questions au XXème siècle’)
Michel Winock, Nationalisme, antisémitisme et fascisme en France, Paris: Seuil (coll. ‘Points-Histoire’; H131), 1990
— La Fièvre Hexagonale. Les grandes crises politiques, 1871-1968, Paris: Seuil (coll. ‘Points-Histoire’, n°97), 1990

Vichy, Collaboration and Resistance
Marc-Olivier Baruch, Le Régime de Vichy, Paris: La Découverte, 1996
Philippe Burrin, Living with Defeat. France under the German Occupation, 1940-1944, London: Arnold, 1996
Robert Paxton, Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944, New York: Colombia University Press, 1982

Post-War Literature and Politics
David Caute, Communism and the French Intellectuals, London, 1954
R. Conquest, The Great Terror, London, 1968
Tony Judt, Past Imperfect: French Intellectuals, 1944-1956, Oxford, 1992

(Dr Alyn Stacey, Professor Scott, Professor Gratton)

This course has two main goals. Firstly, it aims to introduce students to the main genres of French literature, in a broadly chronological framework and in terms of the relevant issues of critical theory. This function of the course is served primarily by the lecture series.

Secondly, it aims to engage in close reading of the prescribed texts. This function is served primarily by the seminars. The texts are those listed below and may be supplemented by extracts from the Senior Freshman Literature Course Supplementary Anthology, available from the Department Secretary in Room 4089.

The course begins with an examination of Du Bellay’s Les Antiquitez de Rome (1558), a seminal work, which met with European recognition (it was translated by Edmund Spenser). These lectures consider the virtuoso use of the sonnet to articulate a range of universal and trans-historical themes about Man’s condition and place in the universe.

The Golden Age of French theatre is undoubtedly the seventeenth century, or Grand Siècle. Through an analysis of social satire in Molière’s grande comédie, Le Misanthrope (1666), we will engage with themes such as non-conformity, friendship, happiness and morality. Moving from comedy to tragedy, we will examine Corneille’s Le Cid (1648), a play constructed around the eternally-significant themes of honour, duty, heroism, sacrifice and authority. The study of these two plays will permit valuable insights into both the dramaturgical conventions and the moral philosophy of the time.

The course continues in the nineteenth century with Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, and examines the novelistic norms against which the Nouveau Roman in the twentieth century reacts. Nathalie Sarraute’s Le Planétarium explores further the complex relationship between narration, character and reader in the French novel

Baudelaire’s poetry will be taken as a focus for the study of metaphor in poetry, in particular in relation to poetic form, synaesthesia, and certain key themes (such as the city, and the poet’s understanding of the universe).

Lecture schedule

Michaelmas Term

Week 1 The Sonnet and the City: Du Bellay’s Antiquitez de Rome (SAS)
Week 2 The Stylistics of Expression: Reconstructing Du Bellay’s Rome (I) (SAS)
Week 3 The Stylistics of Expression: Reconstructing Du Bellay’s Rome (II) (SAS)
Week 4 Molière: Le Misanthrope (SAS)
Week 5 Molière: Le Misanthrope (SAS)
Week 6 Molière: Le Misanthrope (SAS)
Week 7 Study Week
Week 8 Corneille: Le Cid (SAS)
Week 9 Corneille: Le Cid (SAS)
Week 10 Corneille: Le Cid (SAS)
Week 11 Conclusion (SAS)
Week 12 Conclusion (SAS)

Hilary Term

Week 1 Author, narrator, character: direct and indirect narration in
Madame Bovary (DS)
Week 2 Signs in the text (reference passage: Madame Bovary, end of Part I) (DS)
Week 3 Irony (reference passage: Madame Bovary, last two pages of novel) (DS)
Week 4 Comparison of narrative teachniques in Flaubert and Sarraute (DS)
Week 5 Aspects of Sarraute and the nouveau roman (JG)
Week 6 Aspects of Sarraute and the nouveau roman (JG)
Week 7 Study Week
Week 8 Aspects of Sarraute and the nouveau roman (JG)
Week 9 Metaphor (DS)
Week 10 Metaphor and Synaesthesia (DS)
Week 11 Metaphor and Poetic Structure (DS)
Week 12 Reading the City in Baudelaire’s Poetry (Les Fleurs du Mal) (DS)

Select Bibliography

NB. Two key texts on ‘rhetoric’ should be purchased by students for constant reference throughout their Literature course:
-J. D. Biard, Lexique pour l’explication de texte, Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1980
-Georges Forestier, Introduction à l’analyse des textes classiques, Paris: Nathan, 1993 (limited number of copies available from International Books)

Du Bellay
Edition: Joachim Du Bellay, Les Regrets; Les Antiquitez de Rome, Paris: Gallimard
Y. Bellenger & J. Balsamo, Du Bellay et ses sonnets romains: études sur ‘Les Regrets’ et ‘Les Antiquitez de Rome’, Paris, 1994
H. Chamard, Joachim du Bellay (1522-1560), Lille, 1900
G. Gadoffre, Du Bellay et le sacré, Paris, 1978
V. Saulnier, Du Bellay: l’homme et l’œuvre, Paris, 1951
H. Tucker, The Poet’s Odyssey: Joachim du Bellay and the ‘Antiquitez de Rome’, Oxford, 1990.
H. Weber, La Création poétique en France au XVIe siècle, Paris, 1956 (ch. 6)

Edition: Molière, Le Misanthrope, ed. Loïc Marcou, Paris : Garnier Flammarion, 1997 ; any complete unabridged edition based on the text of 1666
A. Calder, ‘On Humour and Wit in Molière’s “Le Misanthrope” and Congreve’s “The Way of the World”’, in Culture and Conflict in Seventeenth-Century France and Ireland, ed. Sarah Alyn Stacey with Véronique Desnain, Dublin, 2004, pp. 151-162
J. Lough, Seventeenth-Century French Drama, Oxford, 1979
M. Turnell, The Classical Moment, New Haven, Connecticut, 1971
W. D. Howarth, Molière: A Playwright and his Audience, Cambridge, 1982
W. G. Moore, Molière: A New Criticism, Oxford, 1949

Edition: Corneille, Le Cid, ed. Evelyne Amon, Paris: Larousse, 1990; any complete unabridged edition based on the text of 1648 and 1660
H. T. Barnwell, The Tragic Drama of Corneille and Racine, Oxford, 1982

Edition: Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary, Paris, Garnier-Flammarion, Nº 657
G. Genette, Figures III, Paris, 1972 (pp. 65-282)
D. C. Muecke, The Compass of Irony, London, 1969
S. Rimmon-Kenan, Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics, London & New York, 1983
V. Brombert, The Novels of Flaubert: A Study of Themes and Techniques, Princeton, 1966
J. Culler, Flaubert: The Uses of Uncertainty, Cornell, Ithaca, 1985
A. Fairlie, Flaubert: ‘Madame Bovary’, London, 1973
D. Knight, Flaubert’s Characters: The Language of Illusion, Cambridge, 1985
R. Lloyd, ‘Madame Bovary’, London, 1990

Edition: Nathalie Sarraute, Le Planétarium, Paris, Gallimard, coll. Folio no. 92
N. Sarraute, L’Ere du soupçon, Paris, 1956
A. Jefferson, The ‘Nouveau Roman’ and the Poetics of Fiction, Cambridge, 1980
V. Minogue, Nathalie Sarraute and the War of Words: A Study of Five Novels, Edinburgh, 1981

Edition: Charles Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du mal, Paris, Garnier-Flammarion, no. 527
T. Hawkes, Metaphor, London, 1972
D. Molino & J. Tamine, Introduction à l’analyse linguistique de la poésie, Paris, 1982 (esp. chs. 3 & 4)
A. Fairlie, Baudelaire: ‘Les Fleurs du Mal’, London, 1960
A. Cassagne, Versification et métrique d’après C. Baudelaire, Paris, 1906 (rpt. Slatkine, 1982)
S. Johansen, Le Symbolisme: Etudes sur le style des Symbolistes français, Copenhagen, 1945 (rpt. Slatkine, 1972)
J.-P. Richard, ‘Profondeur de Baudelaire’, in Poésie et profondeur, Paris, 1955


Dr Rachel Hoare

The main object of this course is to give a deeper understanding of the French language as it exists today, and to make literary texts in older forms of the language more accessible.

For background reading, there are two indispensable texts for this course, copies of which are available in the library:
P. Rickard, A History of the French Language (London: Routledge, 1993).
J-L. Tritter, Histoire de la langue française (Paris: Ellipses, 1999)

The MT course Histoire de la langue française will address the following topics:

Le français, langue de la nation?
Un curieux hybride: le gaulois, latinisation et racines grecques.

Les événements fondateurs du français
La période romane
La période féodale
François 1er, Villers-Cotterêts: centralisation monarchique et linguistique
Vaugelas, L’Académie Française et la Défense et illustration de la langue française

La langue nationale
La Révolution française : la langue du peuple ou le conservatisme linguistique?
Langue, dialecte, patois et « les linguicides »
La normalisation et la législation linguistique.

Vers le français contemporain
Une langue donneuse et emprunteuse et l’hégémonie de l’anglais.

Weekly handouts to accompany some aspects of this course will be provided online (Website address will be provided at Lecture 1 by lecturer).

Suggested Introductory reading material which you should familiarise yourself with as quickly as possible (copies can be found in the library):
W. Ayres-Bennett, A History of the French Language through Texts (London: Routledge, 1996).
C. Hagège, Le Français, histoire d’un combat, (Boulogne-Billancourt: Editions Michel Hagège, 1996).
G. Price, The French Language. Present and Past (London: Edward Arnold, 1971)

Supplementary reading material:
J. Allières, La formation de la langue francaise (Paris : P.U.F., 1982)
J. Chaurand, Histoire de la langue française (Paris : P.U.F., 1972)
P. Guiraud, Le moyen français (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1966)
P. Guiraud, L’Ancien français (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1971)
P. Guiraud, Les mots étrangers (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1971)
P. Guiraud, Patois et dialectes français (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1971)

The second part of the course is entitled: ‘The French language: variation and innovation’ and will deal with the following topics (approximately two weeks to be spent on each):

1) Languages, dialects and patois in France
2) Local varieties of French in France
3) Local varieties of French outside France
4) Situational and social variation
5) Official innovation – the role of the state
Defending and preserving the language

Weekly handouts will accompany this course.

Supplementary reading material which will be referred to on a weekly basis throughout the course:

R. Anthony Lodge, French: From Dialect to Standard (1993)
Dennis Ager, Sociolinguistics and Contemporary French (1994)
Carol Sanders ed., French Today: Language in its Social Context (1995)
Adrian Battye and Marie-Anne Hintze, The French Language Today (1992)
Malcolm Offord, Varieties of Contemporary French (1990)

Referencing for linguistics essays and dissertations

The Harvard System

This system requires all references to be placed in a bibliography at the end of the article or dissertation. References in the text give the surname of the author and the publication date of the work to which reference is made. This information is enclosed in parentheses:

Southern varieties of French speech still differ markedly from those of the north as a result of residual Occitan influence (Schlieban-Lange 1977).

This emphasis is relatively new; however, a number of recent reviews and discussions (Benson 2000; Dickinson 1995; Ehrman and Dörnyei 1998; Ushioda 1996a, 1998) provide evidence that L2 motivation and learner autonomy go hand in hand...

When it is necessary to draw attention to a particular page or pages, this may be done thus:

These mechanisms, closely linked with the appraisal process, refer to knowledge and strategies used to manage cognitive and noncognitive resources for goal attainment (Corno and Kanfer 1993, 304).

If two or more works by the same author have the same publication date they should be distinguished by adding letters after the date:

The most constraining linguistic norms tend to be found in communities which Le Page and Tabouret-Keller (1985b) refer to as ‘highly focused societies’.

The list of references is arranged in alphabetical order of the author’s surnames. Examples are given below:

Abu-Rabia S. 1997. ‘Gender differences in Arab students’ attitudes toward Canadian society and second language learning’, Journal of Social Psychology 137, 125-128.

Ager D.E. 1993. ‘Identity, community and language policies in contemporary France’, in Ager, Muskens and Wright 1993, 71-90.

Ager D.E., Muskens G., and Wright S.,eds, 1993. Language education for intercultural communication, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Hudson R.A. 1980. Sociolinguistics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Menzies J. 1991. ‘An investigation of attitudes to Scots and Glasgow dialect among secondary school pupils’, Scottish Language, 10, 30-46
ESSAY TITLES 2009-2010

Michaelmas Term :
1. ‘Il déteste la tyrannie, l’arbitraire, l’absolutisme même, et l’aveuglement qui en permet l’exercice’ (Nakam). Making reference to at least two of the Essais, discuss this assessment of Montaigne.
2. ‘Pascal interprets much of human activity as a form of distraction or divertissement’ (Cruickshank). Explain this comment and discuss its centrality to Les Pensées.
3. ‘A number of critics believe that Martin is treated sympathetically, and that his character holds Voltaire's ideal philosophy—pessimism.’ Discuss this view, making precise reference to Candide.
Hilary Term:
4. What was the influence of fascist ideas in France in the interwar years? Use examples of movements and individuals to illustrate your answer.
5. What is the effect of the Second World War and the Occupation on French collective memory?
6. Why did Chirac say of the Occupation that ‘la folie criminelle de l'occupant a été secondée par des Français, par l'Etat français’?
7. Give an account of the ambiguity of Sartre’s approach to the GULAG.
8. How reliable is Althusser as an historian of the USSR?
9. May ’68: Revolution of psychodrama?

Michaelmas Term :
1. ‘Rebastir au compass de la plume/Ce que les mains ne peuvent maçonner.’ Making precise reference to the text, discuss Du Bellay’s Antiquitez de Rome in light of this statement.
2. ‘Violente satire de la société aristocratique du XVIIe siècle, Le Misanthrope se présente aussi comme une réflexion sur le jeu social’ (Marcou). Discuss.
3. Discuss the representation of heroism and virtue in Corneille’s Le Cid.
Hilary Term:
4. ‘Je crois que le grand art est scientifique et impersonnel’ (Flaubert). How applicable is this comment to the novelist’s achievement in Madame Bovary?
5. What do you consider to be the most interesting formal innovations in Sarraute’s Le Planétarium?
6. What does Baudelaire’s use of metaphor tell us about his conception of the world?

Michaelmas Term :
1. ‘The apparent linguistic unity of France hides a rather different reality of considerable linguistic diversity’ (Laroussi and Marcellesi) Discuss this statement with reference to the regional languages of France.
2. Critically examine the attempts of 20th century linguistic legislation to stem the flow of anglicisms into the French language.
Hilary Term:
3. ‘The situation regarding gender in French is further complicated by the fact that a number of words do not yet have a well-established, recognised form in the feminine’  (Gervais, 1993). Discuss.
4. ‘Les déplacements de population ont toujours été un facteur important dans l’évolution des langues, qu’il s’agisse d’invasions, de colonisation ou simplement de migrations économiques.’  Discuss with reference to the migrant languages of Paris.   

Scholarship Examination

Traditionally, the Senior Freshman year is the one in which students sit for the competitive Foundation and Non-Foundation Scholarship examinations in the last week of the Michaelmas vacation in any given year. Those who are elected to Scholarship will have secured the most prestigious award available to undergraduates of this University and one which is recognised world-wide: along with the Provost and Fellows, they form part of the governing corporation of the College; they are entitled to Commons free of charge and to rooms in College free of charge for up to nine months of the year; they receive a salary which, together with any grant which they may receive from an outside body, will amount to not less than Euro 63.49 per annum (after payment of the annual fee): they are entitled to remission of the annual fee appropriate to their main course of study, if they are not in receipt of outside scholarships or grants, save that undergraduate scholars from non-EU countries will have their fees reduced by an amount corresponding to the appropriate fee level of an Irish student. Such a Scholarship can be held for up to five years, enabling students partially to fund their graduate studies, should they decide to continue on in Trinity upon the completion of their Primary Degree.

The Scholarship examinations cover all of the Junior Freshman year and the Michaelmas term of the Senior Freshman year. They require students to demonstrate
excellence in their level of mastery of the language (both written and oral) both in terms of fluency and accuracy (language competence paper);
their exceptional ability to present structured and reasoned argument and analysis through their answers to searching essay questions (coursework essay paper)

The examinations have the following format:

(1) One 1.5-hour paper on language competence and a viva voce. Weighting: 250 marks.

(2) One 3-hour paper on course work (covering all the Junior Freshman course and all the Senior Freshman course EXCEPT language up to the point in the year when the examination takes place, i.e. end of Michaelmas Term). Weighting: 250 marks.

In order to be recommended for a Scholarship in TSM, candidates must achieve a first-class result in one subject and at least a 2.1 result in the other. The overall mark must be 70% or higher.
The results of the Scholarship examinations are formally announced by the Provost, on the steps of the Examination Hall, on the Monday in Trinity Week, in any given year. Candidates must give notice of their intention to take the examinations on the prescribed form, obtainable in the Senior Lecturer’s Office, not later than the deadline (to be published shortly). For further details, students should consult the University Calendar.

NB: Candidates who are participating in the SOCRATES programme or in any other programme of study abroad are not eligible for exemption from examinations required by their host university.

The Cotter Prize is awarded to the most highly placed unsuccessful candidate for scholarship in modern languages and literature. See Calendar p. U31.

Socrates Exchanges.

Students intending to undertake a Socrates exchange may do so, either in their Senior Freshman or in their Junior Sophister year, and should consult the Departmental Socrates coordinator, Dr Salerno-O’Shea, on this subject. Information meetings are arranged, concerning such exchanges. Intending Socrates students are required to obtain at least a II:2 result (50% or more) in both their examination subjects, at the first examination session preceding their intended departure.

In broad, general terms, students should aim at doing, in the host university, what would have been done at home. This does not mean that students must perform exactly the same exercises, or study exactly the same authors. It does mean that there should be a half-and-half mix of language and content courses (literature, history of ideas or French linguistics).

A year’s work is defined in terms of ECTS (European Credit Transfer Units). A full year’s work is normally 60 ECTS. Since TSM courses are composed of two equally weighted courses, this would represent 30 ECTS per subject. In order to take account of the fact that working in a foreign environment, and in a less familiar language can be difficult, the French Department will accept 80% of the full quota (that is to say 24 ECTS), although for safety, we suggest students aim a little higher, say 26 ECTS. A student who sits examinations in 26 ETCS, but who passes in less than 24 will not normally be allowed to rise with his/her year and will be required to take repeat examinations in the host university, although the Department will review cases close to 24 ETCS on an individual basis. The precise split between language and non-language courses will vary from institution to institution, but both should figure prominently, and the language should count for at least 10 ECTS, except by specific agreement with the French Department. Where the student is away for less than a full year, these rates should be applied pro rata (13 ECTS for a semester &c).

Students are generally expected to select options appropriate to their year. Second-year students should take second-year courses and third-year students should take third-year courses. There is no objection to students taking a course above their equivalent year (second-year students taking third-year courses) but students should be aware that this comprises an element of risk, should they not be successful in assessments. However, the above not withstanding, JS students may well find third-year translation courses in France too advanced for their level, and by agreement with the Department, may then be advised to take a lower level course.

The course selected by students should be courses intended for and available to full-time students in the host university, and NOT special courses designed for Socrates or Erasmus students, except by special, specific and prior arrangement with the French Department.

Students are required to submit themselves to the assessment provided by the host university. This may take the form of examination or continuous assessment, or any combination of the two. In order that the ECTS should count, students must be successful in their assessments. As a precaution, students should bring their marks with them on their return. However, only officially returned marks from the host institution can be counted at the end of the year. It is the student’s responsibility to ascertain the dates and location of examinations, and failure to present for examinations will lead to a loss of credit.

Where a student is unable to take a course for a full year or up until the normal assessment in the host institution, a special assessment may be agreed, but should nevertheless be officially administered through the host institution, which should return the marks obtained in the same way as for a regular assessment.

Assessment / Examination

Assessment comprises the following two elements, which are equally weighted:

1. A mark for language composed of four elements of equal weight:

a) a continuous assessment mark derived from the year’s work: 25%
b) a 3-hour paper combining a test of grammar and a composition: 25%
c) a 3-hour paper combining translation from French and a résumé: 25%
d) an oral examination including a formal exposé: 25% (30% of this mark is given to content, 70% to the level of French)

2. A mark for course-work, composed of two elements of equal weight:

a) marks for the two submitted essays: 50%
b) a 3-hour paper requiring three questions to be answered: 50%

To rise into the following year, students must

a) achieve a pass mark on the aggregate of the two written language papers; and
b) achieve a pass mark on the language examination as a whole; and
c) achieve a pass mark on the examination as a whole.

Prizes: The Dompierre-Chaufepié prize is awarded to the highest placed candidate in the annual examination. One Composition Prize is also awarded in each of the TSM, ES and CSLF programmes. (NB: Highly placed women students should consider applying for the Lucy Gwynn Prize in the MT of their JS year, valued at approx. Euros 250).

A supplemental examination in a subject will normally consist of all formal written papers together, where appropriate, with aural and oral examinations. Departmental discretion may be exercised in the following cases:

students whose assessment work done during the year has been unsatisfactory may be required to submit such work in addition to taking the formal written papers;
students who fail the annual examination solely because of a failure in assessed work done during the year may be required to submit that work without being required to take the formal written papers;
students who fail the annual examination solely because of failure in language may be required to take a supplemental in language only.
(Calendar, J6, para. iv)

Where dates for submission of written work are specified, students are responsible for ensuring the work is returned to the correct person and place by the date specified. Assessed term or vacation work should be returned to the Department office, and signed in. Where special circumstances arise, permission for late submission should be sought from the Head of Department, with the agreement of the marker. If the reason for late submission is medical, a certificate or photocopy of it should be presented at the earliest reasonable opportunity, for filing in the Department office. If work has not been submitted in the Hilary or Trinity term, for example, students should not assume that this omission can be rectified after the examination. Late submission of work, without the prior permission of the Head of Department, will result in the award of a zero mark.

N.B. Supplemental Examinations and Submission of Work

Only students who are required to sit a supplemental examination in course-work may submit, no later than 1 September, any of the assessed work for the Ideas, Literature or Linguistics courses which they failed to submit at the normal time, or for which a fail mark was returned. Failing such submission, the mark initially awarded (including a zero mark for essays not submitted) will be included in the calculations for the supplemental examination.

These provisions do not however apply to the continuous assessment element of the language programme. Assessment of language competence in the supplemental examination will be based solely on performance in the examinations.

Examination procedures

1. Examination papers and assessment essays will be set and marked according to the agreed procedures of the Department. In the case of Moderatorship (or degree) examinations, papers will be submitted to extern examiners for comment prior to submission to the Senior Lecturer’s office.

2. Sophister language papers and all Moderatorship part II papers will be double-marked.

3. For each year or course, a Chief examiner will be appointed to co-ordinate the running of the examinations and return marks and provide relevant information to candidates. The chief examiner shall, in agreement with the Head of Department, convene examiners’ meeting to review and finalise marks, in the presence of extern examiners where a Moderatorship examination is concerned. In the case of interdisciplinary courses (ES, CSLL) the only function of the French Department meeting is to return a mark to the relevant course co-ordinating committee.

4. The criteria according to which papers will be assessed will be included in the Department’s Handbooks and circulated to students.

5. In the first instance, calculations of results will be mathematical based on the university’s general scheme (or reductions or multiples thereof):

Fail 2 extremely weak 0 - 29%
Fail 1 weak 30 - 39%
Third adequate 40 - 49%
Lower Second quite good 50 - 59%
Upper Second good 60 - 69%
First excellent 70 - 100%

Where, in the case of an individual course, a scheme other than the one outlined above is in use, the Department will make returns according to that convention. Where the course requires a mark out of more than 100 to be returned, the Department will use that convention to make a return. The Department will ensure through its Handbooks or otherwise that candidates for examinations are aware of the weighting of the respective components, and where questions on a given paper are not equally weighted, the rubric shall indicate the weighting of the components within the paper.

6. In particular, language examinations are subject to the rule set forth in the University Calendar pJ3, n°14, as interpreted in the Department’s Handbooks. Where a student fails to demonstrate proficiency in the language, the mark returned shall be either the actual mark obtained by the student in the relevant language components of the examination, or 38, whichever is the lower, this mark being scaled up where the conventions for return of marks require.

7. When the Department examiners’ meeting has had an opportunity to take cognisance of the mathematically derived marks, it may consider the spread of marks, the balance between marks of different classes (see 5 above) and take into account the possible implications of a given return. It may moderate either individual marks or the overall return. It will pay particular attention to marks close to a class border (i.e. marks where a slightly higher mark would result in the student being returned in another class). It shall pay special attention to ensuring that the moderation of an individual mark or overall return does not create inequalities or anomalies by promoting a student with a lower mathematically derived mark above a student who had achieved a higher mathematically derived mark, except where the spread of marks provides a justification for so doing.

8. In conformity to general university practice, the Department shall appoint one or several external examiners. The external examiner may see or review any marking within the Department, which may form part of a Moderatorship assessment. In practice, this means examination papers, dissertations and assessment essays counting towards overall assessment. In all normal circumstances, the recommendations of the external examiner will be acted upon. In practice, extern examiners regularly have sight of the final year dissertations, and chief examiners or the Head of Department may refer any paper or piece of work for an opinion, especially where a class difference may potentially be involved. Students have the right to consult the Head of Department on any matter of concern to them. Where the concerns expressed relate to assessment marking, the Head of Department will normally inform the person whose marks are being referred for further examination, while safeguarding the confidentiality of students.

9. The external examiner will endeavor to ensure that standards are broadly comparable with those applied elsewhere in these islands and that the Department’s own procedures are applied equitably to all students.

10. In conformity to general university practice, students will access their marks via the College web pages.

11. The Department will not normally take into account medical evidence, except insofar as granting an extension to submission deadlines is concerned. Medical cases should be channeled through tutors to form the substance of an appeal.

12. Where a piece of assessed work counting towards an examination is not submitted and signed into the Department office by the published due-date, and an extension has not been granted by the Head of Department or of the Course Director in the case of Business Studies and French, prior to the published due-date, a return of 0 will normally be made.

13. Where a student is absent from a part of the examination only, or fails to submit required written work for assessment, and nevertheless achieves an overall pass mark, the Department will return a pass mark. Where a student is absent from a part of the examination only, and fails to achieve an overall pass mark, the Department will make a return indicating partial absence.

14. Where a student fails to complete the number of questions stipulated by the rubric in an examination, and nevertheless, some indication of an attempted answer, draft or plan is available, credit for the assessable work will be given. In the absence of any such assessable material, a mark of 0 will be returned.

15. The Department reserves the right to give reduced credit to students who have failed to comply with the examination rubric.

16. Where a student at a Junior or Senior Sophister examination receives a mark of 70 or more (or its equivalent scaled up of down), (s) he will be recommended for a distinction in the use of spoken French.

17. The following criteria are drawn to the attention of markers:

Essay writing:

First class

Shows an intelligent awareness of the question’s implications, thorough knowledge of text /topic, sophisticated use of secondary sources, and of theoretical issues where appropriate. The argument clearly focuses on the question, and points are supported by relevant quotation. Original and imaginative response, sure grasp of subject, which may challenge received critical opinion.

Upper second

Shows a good understanding of the question and a thorough knowledge of the text/topic, with intelligent assimilation of secondary sources. The argument is coherent and clearly focused on the issue, and points are supported by relevant quotation. Intelligent general approach to the question, with clear analytical ability and evidence of independent critical response. May offer challenge to received critical opinion.

Lower second

Understands the question and shows a sound knowledge of the text/topic, but may be narrow in frame of reference. Tendency to be narrative or descriptive rather than analytical, and discussion not always sharply focused on the question. Shows a generally capable but unimaginative approach to the question, and may be over-dependent on secondary sources. Makes use of lecture notes but reluctant to challenge received critical opinion.

Third class
Fails to see all the implications of the question and reveals limited knowledge of the text/topic, with little reference beyond it. May well be sketchy and rather short. Argument may lack clarity and precise focus on the question. Makes dogmatic assertions unsupported by evidence, shows areas of irrelevance and is generally over-descriptive. Shows a mechanical approach to the question and relies heavily on the uncritical reproduction of lecture notes. Little evidence of secondary reading.


Misses important implications of the question. Limited knowledge of the text/topic, with little reference beyond it. Largely descriptive, clumsy style and presentation poorly documented sources. Generally naïve approach to the question with no evidence of secondary reading.

Serious fail

Fails to understand the question, poor knowledge of text/topic sources not documented. Fails to address the question, no evidence of secondary reading.

Writing in French

First class

French largely free from grammatical error with qualities of idiom, lexis, syntax, and style. At the higher end, could almost pass for the work of a literate French person.

Upper second

Ambitious French with a good level of grammatical accuracy and a positive attempt to display a range of idiom and lexis suitable to the subject. Very much at home in the language.

Lower second

Sound grammar and syntax, though with some errors, vocabulary mostly adequate to the subject, but with some clumsiness and anglicisms in the expression. Generally satisfactory grasp of French structures without showing exceptional flair.

Third class

French comprehensible but clumsy and erratic, with a limited range of lexis and a sprinkling of serious grammatical errors; verb forms and tense use mostly correct.


French comprehensible but prone to gross errors and grammar. Limited range of vocabulary.

Serious fail

Unacceptable frequency of inaccuracy, obvious anglicisms and patchy cohesion.


When giving a class presentation, you should take into consideration the following factors:

• Content
• Structure
• Delivery and Audience Awareness
• Use of Aids
• Handling of Questions


In preparing your presentation:

(a) Define your objectives, i.e. the key points which you wish to examine (two to three maximum).
(b) Calculate how much coverage you can give to each point in the time available.


Your presentation should comprise the following components:

(a) Introduction: State your objectives and the stages which will be involved in your exploration of them.
(b) Clear Sequencing: Indicate the transitions between each of your points (‘signposting’).
(c) Conclusion: Recapitulate on your arguments, to show that they have led you to an overall concluding idea.

Delivery and Audience Awareness

Think about the manner in which you deliver your presentation. For example:

(a) Voice: Are you audible? Are you speaking too quickly? Are you speaking on a monotone?
(b) Eye-Contact: Are you engaging with the audience through sufficent eye-contact? Or are you avoiding eye-contact and reading to your notes?
(c) Body-language: Do you have any distracting physical mannerisms? What are you doing with your hands? Are you walking about too much?
(d) Language: Are you using the correct register for the subject?
(e) Notes: Are you just reading from your notes? This will disengage you from your audience (see (b) above). Practise using prompting words and improvising.

Use of Aids

You may wish to use the blackboard, hand-outs or an over-head projector. If so, integrate these aids smoothly into your presentation, e.g. make sure you know how the equipment works before the class begins and have your photocopies ready. Give your audience time to digest the information which these aids are presenting, perhaps by running through it with them.

Handling Questions

If a given question is not clear, then ask the questioner to repeat it and/or rephrase it. What is the point of the question? Is it requesting clarification of a point you have made, or is it expressing an objection and challenging your point of view? If you do not know the answer, admit it and perhaps refer the question to someone else. Or indicate where or how an answer might be found (e.g. through further research).


The College has a strict policy on plagiarism, which it is the French Department’s intention to apply fully. The complete Calendar entry is reproduced below. In practical terms, the Department’s response will be as follows:

a) Where two or more pieces of work are submitted which are identical or substantially similar, except in those situations where the exercise has been set as a group exercise, the authors of the pieces of submitted work will be interviewed with a view to ascertaining whether there are any reasons why a mark of 0 should not be returned. Whereas it is good practice for groups of students to study and revise together, it is not good practice to lend your essay to another student for copying. Of course, lending notes to absent colleagues is perfectly in order.

b) Where a piece of work contains quotations from a published work or a website that are not specifically acknowledged in notes, the Department reserves the right to return a mark of 0: Students are encouraged to read around their subject, and consult works of criticism or relevant websites. However, material and ideas gathered from these sources should not normally replace students’ own words: rather, quotations should be used to back-up or substantiate an assertion, and should be offered as a kind of “proof” of the student’s own ideas, not as a replacement for them. In order to make it quite obvious which ideas you are presenting as your own, and which are ascribed to other people, set borrowed words aside typographically, but putting a short quotations (60 words or less) in inverted commas, and by setting longer quotations outside the main body of the text, with a reference to the source in each case.

c) Where an essay has been set in French and a portion of the mark is to be assigned on the basis of the linguistic standard achieved, that essay should be the candidate’s own work. Students may approach those with a higher standard of French (including students in higher years and native speakers) to resolve specific questions but they should not rely on them for wholesale correction of their work, nor should they submit work which has been re-written by a third party to improve the standard of the French.

d) If you are in any doubt, consult a member of staff.

e) If the Department comes to the view that there has been persistent plagiarism with intent to deceive, the full sanctions outlined in the Calendar will be implemented.


Calendar 2007-2008 H16
68 Plagiarism is interpreted by the University as the act of presenting the work of others as one’s own work, without acknowledgement. Plagiarism is considered as academically fraudulent, and an offence against University discipline. The University considers plagiarism to be a major offence, and subject to the disciplinary procedures of the University.

69 Plagiarism can arise from deliberate actions and also through careless thinking and/or methodology. The offence lies not in the attitude or intention of the perpetrator, but in the action and in its consequences.
Plagiarism can arise from actions such as:
(a) copying another student’s work;
(b) enlisting another person or persons to complete an assignment on the student’s behalf.
(c) quoting directly, without acknowledgement, from books, articles or other sources, either in printed, recorded or electronic format;
(d) paraphrasing, without acknowledgement, the writings of other authors;
Examples (c) and (d) in particular can arise through careless thinking and/or methodology where students:
(i) fail to distinguish between their own ideas and those of others.
(ii) fail to take proper notes during preliminary research and therefore lose track of the sources from which the notes were drawn;
(iii) fail to distinguish between information which needs no acknowledgement because it is firmly in the public domain, and information which might be widely known, but which nevertheless requires some sort of acknowledgement;
(iv) come across a distinctive methodology or idea and fail to record its source;
All the above serve only as examples and are not exhaustive.
Students should submit work done in co-operation with other students only when it is done with the full knowledge and permission of the lecturer concerned. Without this, work submitted which is the product of collusion with other students may be considered to be plagiarism.
70 It is clearly understood that all members of the academic community use and build on the work of others. It is commonly accepted also, however, that we build on the work of others in an open and explicit manner, and with due acknowledgement. Many cases of plagiarism that arise could be avoided by following some simple guidelines:
(i) Any material used in a piece of work, of any form, that is not the original thought of the author should be fully referenced in the work and attributed to its source. The material should either be quoted directly or paraphrased. Either way, an explicit citation of the work referred to should be provided, in the text, in a footnote, or both. Not to do so is to commit plagiarism.
(ii) When taking notes from any source it is very important to record the precise words or ideas that are being used and their precise sources.
(iii) While the Internet often offers a wider range of possibilities for researching particular themes, it also requires particular attention to be paid to the distinction between one’s own work and the work of others. Particular care should be taken to keep track of the source of the electronic information obtained from the Internet or other electronic sources and ensure that it is explicitly and correctly acknowledged.

71 It is the responsibility of the author of any work to ensure that he/she does not commit plagiarism.

72 Students should ensure the integrity of their work by seeking advice from their lecturers, tutor or supervisor on avoiding plagiarism. All departments should include, in their handbooks or other literature given to students, advice on the appropriate methodology for the kind of work that students will be expected to undertake.

73 If plagiarism as referred to in §68 above is suspected, in the first instance, the head of school will write to the student, and the student’s tutor advising them of the concerns raised and inviting them to attend an informal meeting with the head of school, and the lecturer concerned, in order to put their suspicions to the student and give the student the opportunity to respond or department as appropriate will arrange an informal meeting with the student, the student’s tutor, and the lecturer concerned, to put their suspicions to the student and give the student the opportunity to respond. The student will be requested to respond in writing stating his/her agreement to attend such a meeting and confirming on which of the suggested dates and times it will be possible for the student to attend. If the student does not in this manner agree to attend such a meeting, the head of school may refer the case directly to the Junior Dean, who will interview the student and may implement the procedures as referred to under CONDUCT AND COLLEGE REGULATIONS §2.

 Students should refer directly to the Calendar for the complete entry regarding plagiarism and the penalties arising from it.
 The director of teaching and learning (undergraduate) may also attend the meeting as appropriate. As an alternative to their tutor, students may nominate a representative from the Students’Union to accompany them to the meeting.