University of Dublin/Department of French - Trinity College Dublin

iPol Gaillard et Claude Launay, Le Résumé de texte, Hatier, 1998. ... In place of one (and only one) of these two options, students may select one of the ... Some courses include an obligatory exercise in French, and this requirement is in ..... in all TSM subjects) will be modified to meet the Bologna Process requirements that  ...

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Trinity College Dublin



2011 – 2012


School of Languages, Literatures and Cultural Studies
Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences

This Handbook should be read in conjunction with relevant entries in the
University Calendar. In case of any conflict between the Handbook and the Calendar, the provisions of the Calendar shall apply. Copies of the University Calendar can be purchased, consulted in the Library, or on the web:



Department of French Staff 2011-2012

NAMEEXT NO.RMEMAILAlyn-Stacey, Sarah Dr.
JS Yr COORDINATOR26864105 HYPERLINK "" salynsta@tcd.ieArnold, Edward Dr.18364106 HYPERLINK "" ejarnold@tcd.ieFerré, Annick Ms19774104 HYPERLINK "" ferrea@tcd.ieGratton, Johnnie Prof.22784090 HYPERLINK "" grattonj@tcd.ieHanrahan, James Dr18414107 HYPERLINK "" hanrahaj@tcd.ieHoare, Rachel Dr.18424103 HYPERLINK "" rmhoare@tcd.ieKinsella, Ciara14514112 HYPERLINK "" Laudet, Claire Dr.23134108 HYPERLINK "" claudet@tcd.ieOpelz, Dr Hannes10774111 HYPERLINK "" Salerno-O'Shea, Paule Dr.14724113 HYPERLINK "" psalerno@tcd.ieScott, David Prof.
Lecteurs/LectricesTBALe Bail, MarineSouchet, AdrienTondeur, Sylvain
Language Assistants12484077Hammoudi, RafikaLe Clainche, MathildeRoubaud, LaureStark,Jessica Deleuze, Marjorie
Postgrad Teaching
AssistantsTBAGubbins, Sarah   HYPERLINK "" sgubbins@tcd.ieKilroy, Robert   HYPERLINK "" rkilroy@tcd.ieMacLachlan, Rosie HYPERLINK "" Canada-Smith, Donna   HYPERLINK "" Impens, Florence   HYPERLINK "" 
Departmental OfficesDoran, Sinead
Kelly, Mary15534109 HYPERLINK ""
Corbett, Tracy
Kerr, Lorraine (on leave)13334089 HYPERLINK ""
 HYPERLINK "" lkerr@tcd.ieFrench Dept fax Number: 671711

Term Dates 2011-2012

Michaelmas Term:

Monday 26 September 2011 – Friday 16 December 2011

Study week: 07 November 2011 – 11 November 2011 inclusive

Hilary Term:

Monday 16 January 2012 – Thursday 5 April 2012*
(* Friday 6 April = Good Friday)

Study week: 27 February 2012 – 2 March 2012 inclusive

Exam Period:

Monday 30 April 2012 – Monday 21 May 2012

Overall Year Coordinator: Dr Sarah Alyn Stacey


On successful completion of the programme, students should be able to:

communicate clearly and effectively, both orally and in writing, in English and French, with native speakers in academic, professional and social settings,
organise and present ideas in English and French, within the framework of a structured and reasoned argument, oral or written,
demonstrate a broad knowledge of the historical, social and cultural development of France and French speaking countries,
analyse critically and independently, in English and French, a variety of texts and documents from different periods and sources,
demonstrate an ability to use specific disciplines such as linguistics, literature, ideas and culture to analyse and contextualise texts, other documents, concepts and theories,
translate a range of texts to and from French, with accuracy, consistency and appropriateness of register and expression,
identify original research questions in one of the fields of linguistics, literature, ideas and culture and select and use appropriate methodologies and relevant resources, leading to the writing of a dissertation
mobilise the knowledge, strategies and skills needed for further intellectual development and independent, life-long learning as well as for undertaking further, autonomous study.


N.B. Students are reminded that they will be required to choose the subject that they intend to take in the Senior Sophister year by the end of the last day of Michaelmas term of the JS year. Prospective candidates for Moderatorship Part 1 (French as minor subject) are also reminded that they must have fulfilled the requirement of two months' residence in a French-speaking country before the examination.


In terms of student input, the requirements for Junior Sophister students in TSM French are divided between LANGUAGE modules and optional coursework modules (hereafter abbreviated to OPTIONS).

1. LANGUAGE: All students are required to attend language classes, and submit regular written work. Language teaching in the JS year takes up three hours weekly across both semesters. These hours are in turn divided into two modules, each focused on different language skills:

A) Written Language • FR3005 • 10 ECTS
Aims: Taught by full-time members of staff, this module aims to develop students’ skills in (a) translation from French to English, and (b) résumé, understood as both a receptive skill, requiring sound comprehension of texts written in French, and a productive skill, requiring students to produce an accurate contraction in correct French of a text written in French.

Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this module, students should be able to:
Translate a French literary or journalistic text into idiomatic English, retaining a high level of equivalence with the original;
Write in correct French a résumé of a text on an intellectually challenging topic.
Structure: One hour weekly in both Michaelmas Term and Hilary Term, with classes alternating between translation and résumé.

Prescribed Books:
iMary Wood, Thème anglais, filière classique, PUF, 1995
iPol Gaillard et Claude Launay, Le Résumé de texte, Hatier, 1998.

B) Oral and Written Language Skills • FR3006 • 10 ECTS
Aims: Taught by lecteurs/lectrices, this module aims to develop students’ skills in (a) production of spoken French, and (b) essay writing in French. Contemporary social and political issues will provide an important source of topics for both the oral and written French components. Teaching in the techniques of essay writing component will be included.

Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this module, students should be able to:
Communicate clearly and effectively, orally and in writing in French, in a formal, academic context, on contemporary social and political issues;
Organise and present ideas in French fluently, correctly and coherently, within the framework of a structured and reasoned oral argument, on an intellectually challenging topic and with only brief notes;
Mobilise their knowledge of French as one of the strategies and skills needed for further intellectual development and independent, life-long learning.
Structure: Two hours weekly in both Michaelmas Term and Hilary Term, with one hour focused on spoken French and the other on essay writing.

N.B. The following reference books, used in preceding years, will continue to be required for Junior Sophister Language classes:

Le Petit Robert or Le Micro Robert
Jacqueline Ollivier, Grammaire française (Québec: Editions Études vivantes, 1993)
Bescherelle: La Conjugaison pour tous (Paris: Hatier,1997)
Paul Humberstone, Mot à mot (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1996

2. OPTIONS: All students, whether taking Moderatorship Part 1 or Moderatorship Part 2 in French, select two options, one in each of the Michaelmas and Hilary terms.

In place of one (and only one) of these two options, students may select one of the options in theoretical and applied linguistics offered by the Centre for Language and Communication Studies. The rules governing courses taken in the CLCS will be published by the CLCS, and may differ in some particulars from regulations in force in the French Department.

All students submit an assessment exercise (which MUST BE WORD-PROCESSED) in respect of each option taken within the French Department (see CLCS regulations for CLCS courses). Except where otherwise specified in the course-description, this exercise will take the form of an essay of approximately 2,500 words, the first to be submitted to the departmental secretary in room 4109 by 12.00 noon on Monday 16 January 2012, and the second by 12.00 noon on Friday 23 March 2012. One of the two essays must be in French. Where an essay is submitted in French, 70% of the credit will be awarded on the basis of content, and 30% on the basis of language. CLCS essays may not be submitted in French, the corollary of which is that where courses in the CLCS are taken for part of the year, the essay submitted in conjunction with a French Department course must obligatorily be in French. Some courses include an obligatory exercise in French, and this requirement is in addition to the general requirement for one essay to be submitted in French.

Essay-titles are available in this document (see separate section, below). It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that s/he obtains a copy of these titles. Extensions to the deadline will be permitted only for exceptional reasons, and with the prior consent of the Head of Department. Failure to return the assessment exercise by the due date without prior permission will result in the award of a zero mark.

The copy of the essay submitted will be kept by the department for possible scrutiny by extern examiners, and students are advised to keep a photocopy.


1. Modern Autobiography • FR3030 • 5 ECTS (Prof. Gratton)
Aims: Students will be invited to explore the set texts from three main perspectives:
the question of autobiography as a genre (how to define autobiography? Does it have to be a ‘life-story’? How distinct is autobiography from fiction?);
the question of the self or subject (what image of self/subjectivity/personal identity is offered by a given autobiographical work? How does the chosen manner of writing or narrative style affect the image of self projected by a given work? How does a given writer envisage the relation between self and other?);
the key thematic question of family, as linked to portrayals of childhood and adolescence (areas covered will include the dysfunctional family, the missing parent, and family in the context of exile and displacement).

Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this module, students should be able to:
Discuss the three set texts in terms of the theory and practice of autobiography as a genre;
Compare and contrast the implicit or explicit representations of the self offered by the three set texts;
Explain the importance and significance of the representation of family in each of the three set texts;
Write essays in both English and French demonstrating their ability to construct an argument and to make discriminating use of relevant secondary materials.

Structure: Two hours weekly, lecture + seminar.

Prescribed texts:
Patrick Modiano, Livret de famille (Folio, 1977)
Nathalie Sarraute, Enfance (Folio, 1983)
Marguerite Duras, L’Amant (Minuit, 1984)

Assessment Essay Titles:

1. ‘L’histoire de ma vie n’existe pas’ (L’Amant). Discuss the applicability of this assertion by Duras to one or more of the works on your course.

2. ‘More often than not, the self of modern autobiography is—literally or figuratively—an exiled self.’ Discuss with reference to one or more of the works on your course.

3. ‘The self’s story is frequently viewed through the lens of its relation with some other key person, sometimes a sibling, friend, lover, but most often a parent.’ Discuss the importance of such key persons, or ‘proximate others’, for the representation of self in one or more of the works on your course.

(NB Each of the above essays corresponds basically, though not without overlaps, to the same topic, topic B (where A = autobiography as genre, B = the question of self/subject, and C = the theme of family/childhood). Since the examination will contain questions geared towards the remaining two topics (A and C), there will be no requirement in the exam to avoid the author(s) you have chosen for your assessment essay.)

2. Love and Desire in the Renaissance • FR3027 • 5 ECTS (Dr Alyn-Stacey)

Aims: By focusing on the representation of love and desire in a number of key Renaissance texts, this course aims to give students an insight into the Renaissance view of Man’s place in society and the cosmos. It aims also to introduce students to ‘heritage’ film and to the cinematic reproduction/rewriting of the past.

Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of the course students should be able to:
Analyse critically and independently, in English and French, a variety of primary and secondary texts, films and documents ranging from the 16th century to the 21st century;
Demonstrate a broad knowledge of the historical, social and cultural development of France during the 16th century;
Organise and present ideas in English and French, in writing and orally, within the framework of a structured and reasoned critical argument;
Use the specific disciplines of literature, ideas, history and film to analyse the historical, social and cultural development of France in the 16th century;
Use the appropriate methodologies and relevant resources for the presentation of their research.

Course Structure: Teaching will be by lecture, student papers and discussion. The course is structured as follows:

Presribed Texts
Marguerite de Navarre, L’Heptaméron (Paris: Garnier Flammarion), prologue and first two days only
Pierre de Ronsard, Les Amours (Paris: Gallimard)
Michel de Montaigne, ‘De l’amitié’ and ‘Sur des vers de Virgile’ (Essais I, 28; Essais III, 5)

Prescribed Film
Le Retour de Martin Guerre (Daniel Vigne, 1982)

Assessment Essay Titles / Commentaries:

1. Either

Supporting your answer with precise reference to the text, discuss the conflict between reason and appetite in the Heptaméron.


Discuss the role of the storytellers in the Heptaméron.

2. Either

Write a detailed commentary on the following sonnet, drawing attention to themes, style, and literary techniques:

Marie, en me tançant vous me venez reprendre
Que je suis trop léger, et me dites toujours,
Quand j’approche de vous, que j’aille à ma Cassandre,
4. Et toujours m’appelez inconstant en amours.

L’inconstance me plaît ; les hommes sont bien lourds
Qui de nouvelle amour ne se laissent surprendre ;
Qui veut opiniâtre une seule prétendre
N’est digne que Vénus lui fasse de bons tours.

Celui qui n’ose faire une amitié nouvelle,
A faute de courage, ou faute de cervelle,
11. Se défiant de soi que ne peut avoir mieux.

Les hommes maladifs ou matés de vieillesse
Doivent être constants, mais sotte est la jeunesse
14. Qui n’est point éveillée et qui n’aime en cent lieux.
(Amours à Marie : Second Livre, sonnet 10)


‘Malheureux est qui aime, / Malheureux qui se laisse à l’Amour décevoir’ (Ronsard). Making precise reference to Ronsard’s poetry to Cassandre, Marie and Hélène, discuss his view of love in light of this quotation.

3. Either

Define and comment upon Montaigne’s views on friendship as they are outlined in Sur des vers de Virgile and De l’amitié.


Discuss Montaigne’s view on marriage as they are defined in Sur des vers de Virgile and De l’amitié.

4. Either

Discuss the representation of the character of Bertrande de Rols in Le Retour de Martin Guerre, making precise reference, where relevant, to cinematic techniques, mise en scène, costume etc.


Discuss the representation of relations between men and women in Le Retour de Martin Guerre, making precise reference, where relevant, to cinematic techniques, mise en scène, costume etc.

5. Making precise reference to at least two of the works studied on the course, discuss the influence of society on relationships between the sexes.


Discuss the representation of adultery in at least two of the works studied on the course.

3. Errances narratives: Eighteenth-century Philosophical
Fiction • FR3031 • 5 ECTS (Dr Hanrahan)

Aims: The eighteenth century was an Age of Ideas and this is evident in the major literary works of the period. Authors such as Voltaire, Diderot and Montesquieu experimented with different literary forms – contes philosophiques, dialogues, epistolary novels – as a means of questioning received ideas. This course will allow students to study closely some of the most important works of the period – Candide, Jacques le fataliste, Lettres persanes – while also introducing two shorter, less well-known works. Students will analyse how all these works act as vehicles for the ideas that underpin them, while also focussing on literary form and narrative technique. More specifically, students will examine the originality of these works, which prioritise descriptions of travel, encounters with new worlds and presentations of the ‘Other’, during a period when philosophic, scientific and cultural horizons were being broadened, thus engendering a nascent modernity.

Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this module students should be able to:
Analyse critically and independently, in English and French, a variety of primary and secondary texts relating to the 18th century
Describe the historical, social and cultural development of France during the 18th century through an analysis of literary texts
Organise and present ideas in English and French, in writing and orally in a structured and reasoned critical argument
Show how different narrative structures impact on the communication of ideas about society in the 18th century.

Course texts:
Montesquieu, Lettres persanes
Voltaire, Candide
Voltaire, Micromégas
Diderot, Jacques le fataliste et son maître
Diderot, Supplément au voyage de Bougainville

Assessment Essay titles:

1. Dans quelle mesure peut-on dire que les auteurs des fictions philosophiques que vous avez étudiées « font triompher la raison par le jeu des oppositions insoutenables » (Jean Starobinski) ?
2. La fiction philosophique du XVIIIe siècle fait preuve du vaste éventail des possibles narratifs. Discutez.
3. Discutez l’affirmation suivante : « Quoique la fiction philosophique bascule entre le réalisme et l’invraisemblance, c’est dans la justesse et l’acuité du regard qu’elle porte sur les hommes et les choses que réside sa vérité » (Barbara K.-Toumarkine).

4. CLCS Options
Aspects of Written Language (5 credits) – Dr. O’Rourke

This module examines the phenomenon of written language from a range of perspectives. It begins by exploring the beginnings and historical development of writing, in the process considering the ways in which different writing systems (e.g., word-writing, syllable writing, alphabetic writing) represent different aspects of language. Further points of discussion will be drawn from among the following: the debate around the social and individual consequences of literacy; the orthography of English; the mental processes involved in reading; written texts as coherent communicative acts; information structure and flow in written texts; differences between the language of speech and the language of writing; and the relationship between written language and communication technologies.
• There is no textbook for this module; instead, students will be recommended selected readings for the different topics covered.
• Assessment: Students are required to submit a term essay of 4,000 words.

Language Learning (5 credits) – Prof. Singleton

This module introduces students to key issues and findings in language acquisition research. The principal focus will be on second language acquisition, but first language acquisition will also be covered. Topics to be addressed will include: child language acquisition, the nature-nurture debate, errors and learning strategies, the learner’s ‘internal syllabus’, individual learner differences, theories of second language acquisition, communication strategies and second language teaching.
• Textbook: W. Littlewood, Foreign and Second Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
• Assessment: Students are required to submit a term essay of 4,000 words.


1. Républiques, guerres et passions politiques: France since 1945 • FR3029 • 5 ECTS (Dr Arnold)
Aims: This course explores the political, ideological and far-reaching constitutional changes of post war France, and the various, often competing strands of collective memory shaped by historical events (Occupation, Resistance, the Indo-Chinese and Algerian Wars, May 1968). Students will study a selection of the main constitutional texts (4th and 5th Republics) and will become familiar with the principal historical events and political parties of the period through the study of primary and secondary texts and iconographic documents.

Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of the course students should be able to:
Analyse critically and independently, in English and French, a variety of primary and secondary texts and documents from different periods and sources;
Work within the specificity of disciplines such as history, politics, literature, ideas and culture;
Discuss in broad terms the intellectual, political, institutional, social and historical background of France in the 20th century, and more specifically in the post-war period;
Identify original thematic research questions in the fields of history, politics, ideas and culture.

Agulhon, Maurice La République, tome 2 : 1932 à nos jours, Paris,ð ðHachette Collection  Pluriel 1999, 564p
Berstein, Serge, Nouvelle Histoire de la France contemporaine, tome 17 : La France de l'expansion, la République gaulienne, 1958-1969 Paris, Seuil; (Ed. Points-Histoire) 1989, 375p
Winock, Michel, La France politique : XIXe - XXe siècle, Paris, Seuil; (Ed. Points-Histoire) 2003, 603p.
Winock, Michel, Serge Berstein, Olivier Wievorka, Histoire de la France politique, Tome 4 : La République recommencée : De 1914 à nos jours Paris, Seuil; (Ed. Points-Histoire) 2008, 740p.

Assessment Essay Titles:

1. “Au cours d'une période de temps qui ne dépasse pas deux fois la vie d'un homme, la France fut envahie sept fois et a pratiqué treize régimes, car tout se tient dans les malheurs d'un peuple. Tant de secousses ont accumulé dans notre vie publique des poisons dont s'intoxique notre vieille propension gauloise aux divisions et aux querelles”. What does this quote say about de Gaulle’s conceptions of politics?
2. What are the major characteristics of Gaullism, and how important has de Gaulle’s contribution been to postwar politics in France and in Europe?
3. How is collective memory formed, and how does it evolve? Give precise examples referring specifically to France since the Second World War?
4. “All countries mythologise, and thus distort founding or major events of their national history”. Discuss this assertion with reference to at least two countries.

5. “Collective memory is part of dominant ideology, and as such reflects not what has happened, but the interests of the ruling classes”. How accurate is this statement with regards to the transmission of memory in postwar France?
6. “Vichy, un passé qui ne passé pas”. Discuss this assessment of the long-term effects of the Occupation on French society.
7. Is anti-Americanism a recent phenomenon in French politics? How significant is it in understanding French society and politics?
8. What are the links between Gaullism and anti-Americanism?
9. Is anti-Americanism cultural or political?

2. Language, Society and Identity in the French-speaking World • FR3026 • 5 ECTS (Dr Kinsella)
Aims: The aim of this course is to offer students the opportunity to explore a wide range of sociolinguistic issues relating to the French language. Firstly we consider the diversity of the ‘French-speaking world’, raising questions about the validity of this concept. We then focus more specifically on certain selected countries and regions: students are invited to investigate and reflect on fundamental sociolinguistic issues concerning the function of the French language within a given society, its status relative to other languages with which it is in contact and its role in inter-community relationships. We also examine the varieties of French used by immigrants and look at French-based pidgins and Creoles and their speakers.

Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this module students should be able to:

Identify a wide range of sociolinguistic issues relating to the use of language in the French-speaking world;
Discuss the sociolinguistic aspects of the function of the French language within a given society and its status relative to other languages with which it is in contact;
Explain the role of the French language in inter-community relationships;
Distinguish between different varieties of French including French-based pidgins and Creoles, and examine attitudes towards these varieties and their speakers;
Identify and access appropriate bibliographical sources, databases and other sources of information;
Critically evaluate appropriate research identified from these sources;
Produce essays in both English and French demonstrating the ability to organise material and analyse and evaluate relevant research.

Part 1: The position of French in the world:
(1) Le monde francophone.
(2) French as a first language: Europe and North America.
(3) French as a second language: the colonial heritage.
Part 2: French Creolophonia
(4) Lingua franca, pidgin and creole
(5) French-based pidgins and creoles

Reading List:
The coursebook is:
Sanders, C (ed) (1993) French Today - Language in its social context. Cambridge, C.U.P. (available from International Books)

The following books are essential reading:
Ager, D. (1996) Francophonie' in the 1990s : problems and opportunities. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters
Ball R. (1997) The French Speaking World: a practical introduction to sociolinguistic issues. London, Routledge.
Battye A. Hintze, M-A and Rowlett, P. (2000) (2nd edition) The French Language Today. London, Routledge.
Offord, M. (1996) A reader in French sociolinguistics Clevedon : Multilingual Matters.

Assessment Essay Titles:

1. In Quebec, since the ‘révolution tranquille’ of the 1960’s, French has been a dynamic force, at once the symbol and the instrument of national cultural identity’ (Sanders, 1995). Discuss.

2. Critically evaluate the status of the French language in three Francophone countries outside Europe.

3. The Image and the Romantic Imagination • FR3028 • 5 ECTS (Prof. Scott)
Aims: A perception fundamental to the Romantics was that Truth was expressed through the Image. A careful study of such concepts as ‘image’ and ‘imagination’ is thus indispensable in any study of Romanticism. This course will trace the development of the Romantic preoccupation with images — whether drawn from Nature, Religion, Mythology, the Fine Arts, foreign cultures or other sources — through a variety of texts — essay, travelogue, ‘rêverie’, poem, prose poem, etc. — and attempt to assess its implications in the context of the literary and artistic developments of the period.

Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this module, students should be able to:
Discuss a range of important French Romantic texts 1780-1860 in poetry and prose;
Explain the concept of the Imagination and, in particular, its relation to developments in 19th-century poetry and poetic prose writing;
Evaluate and reflect critically on poetic images in verse and prose;
Make coherent and informative oral and written presentations on French Romantic poetry;
Write in-depth critical commentaries on specific poems
Describe in detail the conventions of French prosody;
Write essays in both English and French demonstrating their ability to organise material and analyse and evaluate relevant materials.

Prescribed Texts:
Rousseau Les Rêveries du promeneur solitaire
Chateaubriand Itinéraire de Paris à Jérusalem
Hugo Les Orientales
Guérin Le Centaure in Poésies
Nerval Les Chimères
Baudelaire Le Spleen de Paris

Assessment Essay Titles:
1. Discuss ways in which in early French Romantic writing the Imagination manifests itself as much as a mental process as a faculty.

2. Show how objects from the natural or cultural world, in becoming souvenirs  — flower, fragment of monument, etc — create the conditions for the elaboration in Romantic writing of the poetic image.

3. Explore ways in which the French prose poem in the nineteenth century both continues to use conventionial poetic images while also radically transforming them.

4. The poet Théodore de Banville prioritised the importance of 'l'imagination de la rime' in French poetry. To what extent is this concept relevant to the practice of Victor Hugo in Les Orientales and/or that of Nerval in Les Chimères?

5. For the critic Edward Said, 'Orientalism' is a conceptual construct imposed on the East by the West. Does this formulation give a sufficient account of French Romantic writers' interest in the Near East?

4. CLCS Options
Sociolinguistics (5 credits) - Dr. Kallen

This module is an introduction to the study of language in its social context. Topics include accents, dialects, and standards; social dialects depending on factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic class, and social network; the relationship between language variation and language change; language planning and language rights; and language loyalty, maintenance, and shift.
• Textbook: Ronald Wardhaugh, 2010. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 6th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
• Assessment: Students are required to submit a term essay of up to 4,000 words.

Aspects of Vocabulary (5 credits) - Prof Singleton

This module will attempt to demonstrate that almost everything in language is related in some way or other to words and that, conversely, the lexical dimension of language needs to be conceived of as rather more than just a list of lexical items. The topics to be explored in this connection will include: the nature of the lexicon, lexis and syntax, lexis and morphology, lexical partnerships, lexis and meaning, lexis and phonology, lexis and orthography, lexical variation, lexical change, and lexical acquisition.
• Textbook: D. Singleton, Language and the Lexicon: An Introduction. London: Edward Arnold, 2000.
• Assessment: Students are required to submit a term essay of 4,000 words.

As of the academic year 2011-12, the modes of examination for students majoring or minoring in French (as in all TSM subjects) will be modified to meet the Bologna Process requirements that (a) all taught modules receiving credits (ECTS) should also receive a mark contributing to the student’s overall end-of year mark; and (b) that the ECT value (out of a total number of 30 ECTS per TSM subject) attached to a given module should determine its percentage value within the full set of modules at the level of assessment/examination. This means that, henceforth, all students, whether majoring or minoring in French, will not only take modules according to the same requirements, but will also sit the same number of corresponding examinations or assessments.

Under these new arrangements, all students will sit two examinations in Written French and one examination (the oral) in Spoken French. The final marks for the two optional modules will be those awarded to each of the two corresponding assessment essays (i.e. there will be no separate written examination for the options). Thus the overall assessment for all students will be as follows:

1. Language paper I (Translation from French and résumé) (10/30)
2. Language paper II (Essay in French) (5/30)
3. Oral examination (5/30)
4. Option I (assessment essay) (5/30)
5. Option II (assessment essay) (5/30).

Please note that
At least one of the two assessment essays for the options has to be written in French;
ECT values out of 30 will be translated into corresponding percentage values of examined/assessed components;
In order to satisfy the examiners in language, all candidates must obtain an overall pass mark (40%) across the full range of language examinations, i.e. Language I, Language II and the Oral.

For students who have chosen to major in French, the aggregate mark will be recalculated as a mark out of 150 for JS French. This mark out of 150 is the mark for Moderatorship II Part 1, and is carried forward for incorporation into the student’s final result following completion of Moderatorship II Part 2 in the Senior Sophister year. Students majoring in French must achieve an aggregate pass of 40% or over if they are to rise with their year.

Students who have chosen to minor in French will complete Moderatorship Part 1 in French at the end of their JS year. For these students, the aggregate mark will be recalculated as a mark out of 350 out of the final total of 1000 for the Moderatorship as a whole.


Examination papers and assessment essays will be set and marked according to the agreed procedures of the Department of French. In the case of Moderatorship (or degree) examinations, papers will be submitted to extern examiners for comment prior to submission to the Senior Lecturer’s office.

Sophister language papers and all Moderatorship part II papers will be double-marked.

For each year or course, a Chief examiner will be appointed to co-ordinate the running of the examinations, return marks and provide relevant information to candidates. The chief examiner shall, in agreement with the Head of Department, convene an examiners’ meeting to review and finalise marks, in the presence of extern examiners where a Moderatorship examination is concerned. In the case of interdisciplinary courses (ES, CSLL) the only function of the French Department meeting is to return a mark to the relevant course co-ordination committee.

The criteria according to which papers will be assessed will be included in the Department’s Handbooks and circulated to students.

5. In the first instance, calculations of results will be mathematical, as based on the University’s general scheme (or reductions or multiples thereof):

Fail 2 extremely weak 00 – 29%
Fail 1 weak 30 – 39%
Third adequate 40 – 49%
Lower Second fairly good 50 – 59%
Upper Second good 60 – 69%
First excellent 70 – 100%

Where, in the case of an individual course, a scheme other than the one outlined above is in use, the Department will make returns according to that convention. Where the course requires a mark out of more than 100 to be returned, the Department will use that convention to make a return. The Department will ensure through its Handbooks or otherwise that candidates for examinations are aware of the weighting of the respective components, and where questions on a given paper are not equally weighted, the rubric shall indicate the weighting of the components within the paper.

In particular, language examinations are subject to the rule set forth in the University Calendar (p. K3, section 14), as interpreted in the Department’s Handbooks. Where a student fails to satisfy the examiners in the language component, the mark returned shall be either the actual overall mark obtained by the student in the relevant language component of the examination, or 38, whichever is the lower.

When the Department examiners’ meeting has had an opportunity to take cognizance of the mathematically derived marks, it may consider the spread of marks, the balance between marks of different classes (see 5 above) and take into account the possible implications of a given return. It may moderate either individual marks or the overall return. It will pay particular attention to marks close to a class border (i.e. marks where a slightly higher mark would result in the student being returned in another class). It shall pay special attention to ensuring that the moderation of an individual mark or overall return does not create inequalities or anomalies by promoting a student with a lower mathematically derived mark above a student who had achieved a higher mathematically derived mark, except where the spread of marks provides a justification for so doing.

In conformity to general university practice, the Department shall appoint one or several extern examiners. The extern examiner may see or review any marking within the Department, which may form part of a Moderatorship assessment. In practice, this means examination papers, dissertations and assessment essays counting towards overall assessment. In all normal circumstances, the recommendations of the extern examiner will be acted upon. In practice, extern examiners regularly have sight of the final year dissertations, and chief examiners or the Head of Department may refer any paper or piece of work for an opinion, especially where a class difference may potentially be involved. Students have the right to consult the Head of Department on any matter of concern to them. Where the concerns expressed relate to assessment marking, the Head of Department will normally inform the person whose marks are being referred for further examination, while safeguarding the confidentiality of students.

The extern examiner will endeavour to ensure that standards are broadly comparable with those applied elsewhere in these islands and that the Department’s own procedures are applied equitably to all students.

Students will, on their request or that of their tutor, be informed by the Chief Examiner for the year or the Head of Department, of individual marks. The commitment to the provision of full information to students does not mean that this information will always be available outside the times prescribed by the Department.

The Department will not normally take into account medical evidence, except insofar as granting an extension to submission deadlines is concerned. Medical cases should be channeled through tutors to form the substance of an appeal.

Where a piece of assessed work counting towards an examination is not submitted and signed into the Department office by the published due-date, and an extension has not been granted by the Head of Department or the Course Director in the case of Business Studies and French, prior to the published due-date, a return of 0 will normally be made.

Where a student is absent from a part of the examination only, or fails to submit required written work for assessment, and nevertheless achieves an overall pass mark, the Department will return a pass mark. Where a student is absent from a part of the examination only, and fails to achieve an overall pass mark, the Department will return a fail mark.

Where a student fails to complete the number of questions stipulated by the rubric in an examination, and nevertheless, some indication of an attempted answer, draft or plan is available, credit for the assessable work will be given. In the absence of any such assessable material, a mark of 0 will be returned.

The Department reserves the right to give reduced credit to students who have failed to comply with the examination rubric.

Where a student at a Junior or Senior Sophister examination receives a mark of 70 or more (or its equivalent scaled up of down), they will be recommended for a distinction in the use of spoken French.

17. The following criteria for are drawn to the attention of markers:

Coursework Essay writing:

a) First class
Shows an intelligent awareness of the question’s implications, thorough knowledge of text /topic, sophisticated use of secondary sources, and of theoretical issues where appropriate. The argument clearly focuses on the question, and points are supported by relevant quotation. Original and imaginative response, sure grasp of subject, which may challenge received critical opinion.
b) Upper second
Shows a good understanding of the question and a thorough knowledge of the text/topic, with intelligent assimilation of secondary sources. The argument is coherent and clearly focused on the issue, and points are supported by relevant quotation. Intelligent general approaches to the question, with clear analytical ability and evidence of independent critical response. May offer challenge to received critical opinion.
c) Lower second
Understands the question and shows a sound knowledge of the text/topic, but may be narrow in frame of reference. Tendency to be narrative or descriptive rather than analytical, and discussion not always sharply focused on the question. Shows a generally capable but unimaginative approach to the question, and may be over-dependent on secondary sources. Makes use of lecture notes but reluctant to challenge received critical opinion.
d) Third class
Fails to see all the implications of the question and reveals limited knowledge of the text/topic, with little reference beyond it? May well be sketchy and rather short. Argument may lack clarity and precise focus on the question. Makes dogmatic assertions unsupported by evidence; areas of irrelevance and generally over-descriptive. Shows a mechanical approach to the question and relies heavily on the uncritical reproduction of lecture notes. Little evidence of secondary reading.
e) Fail
Misses important implications of the question. Limited knowledge of the text/topic, with little reference beyond it. Largely descriptive, clumsy style and presentation poorly documented sources? Generally naïve approach to the question with no evidence of secondary reading.
f) Serious fail
Fails to understand the question, poor knowledge of text/topic sources not documented. Fails to address the question, no evidence of secondary reading.

Writing in French

a) First class
French largely free from grammatical error with qualities of idiom, lexis, syntax, and style. At the higher end, could almost pass for the work of a literate French person.
b) Upper second
Ambitious French with a good level of grammatical accuracy and a positive attempt to display a range of idiom and lexis suitable to the subject. Very much at home in the language.
c) Lower second
Sound grammar and syntax, though with some errors, vocabulary mostly adequate to the subject, but with some clumsiness and anglicisms in the expression. Generally satisfactory grasp of French structures without showing exceptional flair.
d) Third class
French comprehensible but clumsy and erratic, with a limited range of lexis and a sprinkling of serious grammatical errors; verb forms and tense use mostly correct.
e) Fail
French comprehensible but prone to gross errors and grammar. Limited range of vocabulary.
f) Serious fail
Unacceptable frequency of inaccuracy, obvious anglicisms and patchy cohesion.


Students taking one or more modern languages other than English must spend not less than two months in the country of each language in order to fulfill the requirements of their course; students of Irish must spend at least the same amount of time in the Gaeltacht. The residence required for each language MUST BE COMPLETED before the moderatorship examination in that language. Students who fail to meet this requirement will have their Moderatorship exam results witheld. This requirement can be waived only in exceptional circumstances and with the prior approval of the schools or departments concerned. It is recommended that, in the year prior to their entering college, intending students spend a period in a country whose language they are proposing to study; such residence may, with the approval of the department concerned, be counted for up to half of the residence requirement in that language. Students who wish to interrupt their course in order to spend one year abroad in a country whose language they are studying may do so, provided that they comply with the General Regulations and Information included in the Calendar 2011-12.


The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is an academic credit system based on the estimated student workload required to achieve the objectives of a module or programme of study. It is designed to enable academic recognition for periods of study, to facilitate student mobility and credit accumulation and transfer. The ECTS is the recommended credit system for higher education in Ireland and across the European Higher Education Area.

The ECTS weighting for a module is a measure of the student input or workload required for that module, based on factors such as the number of contact hours, the number and length of written or verbally presented assessment exercises, class preparation and private study time, laboratory classes, examinations, clinical attendance, professional training placements, and so on as appropriate. There is no intrinsic relationship between the credit volume of a module and its level of difficulty.

The European norm for full-time study over one academic year is 60 credits. The Trinity academic year is 40 weeks from the start of Michaelmas Term to the end of the annual examination period. 1 ECTS credit represents 20-25 hours estimated student input, so a 10-credit module will be designed to require 200-250 hours of student input including class contact time and assessments.

ECTS credits are awarded to a student only upon successful completion of the course year. Progression from one year to the next is determined by the course regulations. Students who fail a year of their course will not obtain credit for that year even if they have passed certain component courses. Exceptions to this rule are one-year and part-year visiting students, who are awarded credit for individual modules successfully completed.


Book purchase is the personal responsibility of students. The Department will place orders for set texts with International Books, 18 South Frederick St, Dublin 2. It is also possible to order books over the Internet from: or or,fr

Students are expected to acquire and familiarize themselves with a good monolingual dictionary. Le Petit Robert is recommended; if that is ruled out, on grounds of expense, Le Micro Robert is an acceptable substitute for most purposes.


The College has a strict policy on plagiarism, which it is the French Department’s intention to apply fully. The complete Calendar entry is reproduced below. In practical terms, the Department’s response will be as follows:

a) Where two or more pieces of work are submitted which are identical or substantially similar, except in those situations where the exercise has been set as a group exercise, the authors of the pieces of submitted work will be interviewed with a view to ascertaining whether there are any reasons why a mark of 0 should not be returned. Whereas it is good practice for groups of students to study and revise together, it is not good practice to lend your essay to another student for copying. Of course, lending notes to absent colleagues is perfectly in order.

b) Where a piece of work contains quotations from a published work or a website that are not specifically acknowledged in notes, the Department reserves the right to return a mark of 0: Students are encouraged to read around their subject, and consult works of criticism or relevant websites. However, material and ideas gathered from these sources should not normally replace students’ own words: rather, quotations should be used to back-up or substantiate an assertion, and should be offered as a kind of “proof” of the student’s own ideas, not as a replacement for them. In order to make it quite obvious which ideas you are presenting as your own, and which are ascribed to other people, set borrowed words aside typographically, but putting a short quotations (60 words or less) in inverted commas, and by setting longer quotations outside the main body of the text, with a reference to the source in each case.

c) Where an essay has been set in French and a portion of the mark is to be assigned on the basis of the linguistic standard achieved, that essay should be the candidate's own work. Students may approach those with a higher standard of French (including students in higher years and native speakers) to resolve specific questions but they should not rely on them for wholesale correction of their work, nor should they submit work which has been re-written by a third party to improve the standard of the French.

d) If you are in any doubt, consult a member of staff.

e) If the Department comes to the view that there has been persistent plagiarism with intent to deceive, the full sanctions outlined in the Calendar will be implemented.


1.24 Plagiarism
1. Plagiarism is interpreted by the University as the act of presenting the work of others as one’s own work, without acknowledgement.
Plagiarism is considered as academically fraudulent, and an offence against University discipline. The University considers plagiarism to be a major offence, and subject to the disciplinary procedures of the University.
2. Plagiarism can arise from deliberate actions and also through careless thinking and/or methodology. The offence lies not in the attitude or intention of the perpetrator, but in the action and in its consequences.

Plagiarism can arise from actions such as:
a) copying another student’s work
b) enlisting another person or persons to complete an assignment on the student’s behalf
c) quoting directly, without acknowledgement, from books, articles or other sources, either in printed, recorded or electronic format
d) paraphrasing, without acknowledgement, the writings of other authors Examples c) and d) in particular can arise through careless thinking and/or methodology where students:

(i) fail to distinguish between their own ideas and those of others
(ii) fail to take proper notes during preliminary research and therefore lose track of the sources from which the notes were drawn
(iii) fail to distinguish between information which needs no
acknowledgement because it is firmly in the public domain, and information which might be
widely known, but which nevertheless requires some sort of acknowledgement
(iv) come across a distinctive methodology or idea and fail to record its source.
All the above serve only as examples and are not exhaustive.
Students should submit work done in co-operation with other students only when it is done with the full knowledge and permission of the lecturer concerned. Without this, work submitted which is the product of collusion with other students may be considered to be

When work is submitted as the result of a Group Project, it is the responsibility of all students in the Group to ensure, in so far as possible, that no work submitted by the Group is plagiarised.
3. It is clearly understood that all members of the academic community use and build on the work of others. It is commonly accepted also, however, that we build on the work of others in an open and explicit manner, and with due acknowledgement. Many cases of plagiarism that arise could be avoided by following some simple guidelines:
a) any material used in a piece of work, of any form, that is not the original thought of author should be fully referenced in the work and attributed to its source. The material should either be quoted directly or paraphrased. Either way, an explicit citation of the work referred to should be provided, in the text, in a footnote, or both. Not to do so is to commit plagiarism
b) when taking notes from any source it is very important to record the precise words or ideas that are being used and their precise sources
c) while the Internet often offers a wider range of possibilities for researching particular themes, it also requires particular attention to be paid to the distinction between one’s own work and the work of others. Particular care should be taken to keep track of the source of the electronic information obtained from the Internet or other electronic sources and ensure that it is explicitly and correctly acknowledged
4. It is the responsibility of the author of any work to ensure that he/she does not commit plagiarism.
5. Students should ensure the integrity of their work by seeking advice from their Lecturers, Course Co-ordinator, Director or Supervisor on avoiding plagiarism. All schools should include, in their handbooks or other literature given to students, advice on the
appropriate methodology for the kind of work that students will be expected to undertake.
6. If plagiarism as referred to in Paragraph (2) above is suspected, the Director of Teaching and Learning (Postgraduate) or Head of Discipline as appropriate1 will arrange an informal meeting with the student, the student’s Supervisor2, and the academic staff member concerned, to put their suspicions to the student and give the student the opportunity to respond.
7. If the Head of School or Discipline forms the view that plagiarism has taken place, he/she must decide if the offence can be dealt with under the summary procedure set out below. In order for this summary procedure to be followed, all parties noted above must
be in agreement. If the facts of the case are in dispute, or if the Head of School/Discipline feels that the penalties provided for under the summary procedure below are inappropriate given the circumstances of the case, he/she will refer the case directly to the Junior Dean,
who will interview the student and may implement the procedures set out in Section 5
(Other General Regulations).
8. If the offence can be dealt with under the summary procedure, the Head of School/Discipline will recommend to the Dean of Graduate Studies one of the following penalties:
a) that the piece of work in question receives a reduced mark, or a mark of zero;
b) if satisfactory completion of the piece of work is deemed essential for the student to rise with his/her year or to proceed to the award of a degree, the student may be required to re-submit the work. However, the student may not receive more than the minimum pass mark applicable to the piece of work on satisfactory re-submission.
9. Provided that the appropriate procedure has been followed and all parties above are in agreement with the proposed penalty, the Dean of Graduate Studies may approve the penalty and notify the Junior Dean accordingly. The Junior Dean may nevertheless implement the procedures set out in Section 5 (Other General Regulations).
1 This will be done by the Head of School. The Director of Teaching and Learning (Postgraduate) may also attend the meeting as appropriate.
2 As an alternative, students may nominate a representative from the Graduate Students’ Union to accompany them to the meeting.. (Please refer to Calendar for complete entry)


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