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Natalia Dmitrucha (2), Jozef Wojnar (4), Oleksandr Bakunovskij (1) ... signaling system etc., with a ?matching to sample? exercises on a computer screen. .... Increase of oxidize-restorative processes activity (1,8 times); .... ?P.171-172 (Eng lish).



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ANNALES
UNIVERSITATIS MARIAE CURIE-SK?ODOWSKA
LUBLIN - POLONIA VOL.LVIII, suppl. XIII, 162 SECTIO D
2003
O. O. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, Ukrainian National Academy of
Sciences,
Kiev; (1)
Institute for Occupational Health, Ukrainian Academy of Medical Sciences,
Kiev; (2)
Ukrainian Antarctic Center, Ministry for Education and Science of Ukraine,
Kiev, (3)
Wydzia? Wychowania Fizycznego i Fizjoterapii Politechniki Opolskiej, Opole,
Polska, (4) Eugenij Moiseenko (1,3), Vasilij Stezhka (2), Victoria Lastovchenko (2),
Tetyana Kovalenko (1), Oleg Perevoznikov (3), Tetyana Bilko (2),
Natalia Dmitrucha (2), Jozef Wojnar (4), Oleksandr Bakunovskij (1)
Human psychophysiology in extremal environment
???????????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????? Adaptacja organizmu cz?owieka w warunkach ekstremalnych
Introduction
Human adaptation to Antarctic environment, prophylactics of the
desinchronostic disturbances and psycho-emotional unsteadiness, immune
responses, pathological manifestation of the ?ardio-vascular system as well
as the problem of pollution influences on human organisms remain unresolved
so far and is a subject of medical-biological investigations [Moiseenko,
2002.].
Medico-physiological studies were conducted prior to, during and after an
Antarctic expedition. Profound immune and physiological examinations were
performed at the selection of personnel to work in Antarctica and after
their return to Ukraine. Biorhythm peculiarities of psycho-physiological
function state and blood morphology were studied during the over-winter
year under Antarctic conditions of isolation and photoperiodicity. It was
shown that after winter in Antarctica in general functional state of the
organism tend to return to average levels when isolation is ended.
Nevertheless certain immune response rates remain unchanged for some time.
Now long-term health implications of staying in conditions of Antarctic
exposure are studied. Though radionuclide Cz137 occurred in all examined
people, it was not found in their organisms after a year in Antarctica.
Methods
The winter-spending crew of 6 technicians and 8 scientists at the age of
22-55 was selected on the base of clinical trial and laboratory
examination.
The test package "Candidate" was used to measure short-term memory,
latent period of visual motoric reactions, functional rate of nervous
processes in the first and second signaling system etc., with a "matching
to sample" exercises on a computer screen. Immune indicators and morphology
of peripheral blood were obtained using routine tests [Paster, 1989] as
well those pertaining to authors [Karakaszjan, Stiezka et. al., 1993,
Kundiev, Stezhka et al,, 1997]. Radionuclide content in human organisms
was determined with a human radiation counter tube [Research Center for
Radiation Medicine of AMS Ukraine]. Health screening of winterers was
performed in the pre-deployment period, during the year in Antarctica and
in the period after return to Ukraine. Obtained data obtained were
statistically processed. Results
It is suggested that the Antarctic, because of unfavorable influence on
human organism, is a hazardous environment to live and work. Efficiency of
members of an expedition and reliability of their work in is a great part
determined by the individual functional state [Illin, Moiseyenko et al.,
2001]. Having arrived to the Antarctic from the moderate latitudes of
Europe, the members of the staff find themselves in conditions of the light-
dark rhythm inversion, unaccustomed to a long day (in summer) and night (in
winter), twenty-four hour duty [Zhang, 1885]. It is known that changes in
the light rhythm cause the phase shift in the sleep-awake rhythm.
Adaptation to this shift in a way of reorganization of the different
physiological systems is not synchronous, causing impairment of the
circadian rhythm as well as desynchronism [Moiseenko, 2002.]. The decline
of efficiency, impaired functional state, and misconduction of professional
duties characterize the latter. Regarding the role of the central nervous
system in the adaptation mechanisms, psycho-physiological methods were
chosen to estimate the functional state and mental efficiency of members of
the Antarctic expeditions. An investigation of the psycho-physiological
status of the staff of six expeditions was carried out [Rivolier, 1994].
The methodologies of the circadian rhythm examination at the different
phases of Antarctic residence and computer codes to meet the requirements
of expressivity have been worked out. It should be noted that, opposite to
physiological constants, the circadian rhythm of psycho-physiological
functions is poorly known. Nevertheless it can serve as a marker of the
functional state during the expedition and reflect adaptation changes in an
individual, so it can be used as an adaptation criterion.
Psycho-physiological tests of the winterers during the Antarctic year
allowed determining the dynamics of individual subjective estimation of
health, mood, concentration and memory. The winter-over crew members
reported subjective problems with health at the beginning of the second
part of the Antarctic residence, feeling more depressed and irritable
during Antarctic winter and at the beginning of spring, keeping efficiency
and exercise performance all over the year. The rate of sensory motoric
reactions and mental capacity indicators of the winterers presented some
depression at the beginning of the Antarctic year and in winter, especially
after prolonged shift. In post-departure period psycho-physiologic status
indicators changed non-uniformly returning gradually to pre-wintering
values (Table). In most cases activation of the central sections of the
functional system, which is responsible for information processing, showed
a decreasing tendency. In isolated cases the CNS activation level grows,
which indicates the mode shift towards the fast reactions, the larger
number of fast reactions in comparison with slow ones. However, one can
conclude that it is assisted by an increase of biomodal re-allocation of
latent period, which should be considered as an unfavorable sign for
assessment of the CNS functional state. Other psycho-physiological
indicators demonstrate changes that are typical for an increase or decrease
of short-term memory. Such tendencies are observed in functional mobility
of the nervous processes in the first and second signaling systems. We
consider that non-uniform changes of the parameters are determined by
individual differences in human adaptation in Antarctica, which will allow
proper selection of personnel to serve there and work out the methods of
the human functional state correction.
Table. Changes of psycho-physiological status of winterers after the year
in Antarctic |Parameter|Before|After |Results |
|s |Antarc|Antarc| |
|(Indexes)|tic |tic | |
|Short-ter|7,1 |7,9 |In 55.0% -|
|m memory | | |improving |
|Activatio|44.0% |33.0% |In total |
|n | | |lowering. |
|coefficie| | |In 22.0% -|
|nt | | |activation|
| | | |of |
| | | |highplasti|
| | | |c brain |
| | | |struture. |
|Functiona|49.0 |54,1 |In 22.0% -|
|l |signal|signal|increasing|
|mobility |/min |/min | |
|on an | | | |
|?motion | | | |
|signals | | | |
|Functiona|2,3 |2,2 |Minor |
|l |(2 |(2 |changes. |
|mobility |type) |type) | |
|on colour| | | |
|signals | | | | Blood morphology and immunograms
Analysis of the data collected suggested a presence of physiological IAR
(individual adaptive response)-QAR (quiet active response) and RAR(rising
active response) in 31.8 percent of the study group, whereas QAR was found
in 18.2 percent and RAR in 13.6 percent of the challengers. Non-
physiological IAR in the form of TAR (training active response) was
revealed in 27.3 percent, OAR (overactive response) - in 13.6 percent,
stress state - in 27.3 percent of the study cohort. Thus at the selection
stage persons with non-physiological IAR (68.2(9.9 and 31.8(9.9) percent
(PSS (stress status) >OAR while that of the personnel
selected - RAR>TAR>OAR>SS. Physiological IAR was in (45.4(15.0) percent of
the people, non-physiological - in (54.6(15.0) percent, P>0.05. It should
be noted that 7 people were selected on the base of the clinic trial and
psy
....